The time between “legalization” and implementation seems to have caused confusion about the current use of medical marijuana in Ohio. HB 523 became “law” on September 28, 2016. Regulations for cultivators are set to be finalized by May 6, 2017. Regulations for physicians, testing laboratories, processors, patients, caregivers, employees, and dispensaries are scheduled to be finalized on September 8, 2017.
There is at least one medical center where a physician or physicians issue “recommendations” for medical marijuana to patients who are found to have a “qualifying condition” under H.B. 523. This center also issues an “affirmative defense card.” Since none of the procedures are in effect at this time, this practice presents several issues.
One issue is whether a physician can recommend marijuana to patients before he/she has a certificate to recommend. Currently, there are no final regulations in place for physicians to obtain a certificate to recommend medical marijuana. Additionally, according to H.B. 523, a patient can only legally obtain medical marijuana after receiving a written recommendation from his or her doctor that certifies a certain number of criteria are met. There are currently no regulations in place that would enable a physician to issue such a recommendation. Thus, it would seem to be currently impossible for a “certificated” physician to lawfully “recommend” the current use of medical marijuana in Ohio.
Under these circumstances, no individual can currently possess an “affirmative defense card” that would be valid in Ohio. Perhaps the “affirmative defense card” issued by this medical center is effective in states that have reciprocity with other medical marijuana states? The closest of these states to Ohio is Michigan. In Michigan, a visiting qualifying patient can only obtain medical marijuana if that patient has an ID card or its equivalent “issued under the laws of another state, district, territory, commonwealth, or insular possession of the United States.” Since the affirmative defense card is not issued by the State of Ohio, as that program is not yet operational, it is doubtful that Michigan dispensaries can legally dispense marijuana to patients who have been issued an ID card by a private Ohio medical center.
If Michigan dispensaries do dispense medical marijuana to Ohio patients with a private “affirmative defense card,” another related issue is whether patients are violating federal law by bringing marijuana across state lines to Ohio. Former Deputy Attorney General, James Cole, issued a memorandum to all United States Attorneys on August 29, 2013 to provide guidance on the proper prioritization of marijuana enforcement. One enforcement priority, where the Department of Justice may prosecute, is if there is diversion of marijuana from states where it is legal to other states.
Ohio has enacted a law that set forth a process that will make medical marijuana legal, but the details of that legalization are being phased in over a two-year period. This seems to have resulted in marijuana being recommended and dispensed to, and consumed by, citizens of the State of Ohio before these practices are lawful. We are not aware of any criminal prosecutions arising out of this situation, however, and we do know that individuals are acting as if they believe it is legal to consume medical marijuana in Ohio. We would say it is not.